Wednesday, June 30, 2010

Harvey Milk


Harvey Bernard Milk (May 22, 1930 – November 27, 1978) was an American politician who became the first openly gay man to be selected to public office in California, when he won a seat on the San Francisco Board of Supervisors. Politics and gay activism were not his early interests; he was not open about his homosexuality and did not join in civic matters until around age 40, after his experiences in the counterculture of the 1960s.

Milk moved from New York City to settle in San Francisco in 1972 among a migration of gay men to the Castro District. He took advantage of the rising political and economic power of the neighborhood to promote his interests, and ran unsuccessfully for political office three times. His theatrical campaigns earned him growing popularity, and Milk won a seat as a city supervisor in 1977, part of the broader social changes the city was experiencing.

Milk served 11 months in office and was liable for passing a stringent gay rights ordinance for the city. On November 27, 1978, Milk and Mayor George Moscone were assassinated by Dan White, another city supervisor who had freshly resigned but wanted his job back. Milk's election was made possible by and was a key part of a shift in San Francisco politics. The assassinations and the ensuing events were the result of enduring ideological conflicts in the city.


Martin Luther King, Jr.

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Martin Luther King, Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American clergyman, activist, and prominent leader in the African American civil rights group. His main legacy was to secure progress on civil rights in the United States, and he has become a human rights King is recognized as a martyr by two Christian churches. A Baptist minister, King became a civil rights protester early in his career.

He led the 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott and helped establish the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in 1957, serving as its first president. King's efforts led to the 1963 March on Washington, where King deliver his "I Have a Dream" speech. There, he raised public consciousness of the civil rights movement and recognized himself as one of the greatest orators in U.S. history. In 1964, King became the youngest person to get the Nobel Peace Prize for his work to end racial segregation and racial discrimination through civil disobedience and other non-violent means.

By the time of his death in 1968, he had refocused his efforts on ending scarcity and the Vietnam War, both from a religious perspective. King was assassinate on April 4, 1968, in Memphis, Tennessee. He was posthumously award the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1977 and Congressional Gold Medal in 2004; Martin Luther King, Jr. Day was recognized as a U.S. national holiday in 1986.


Tuesday, June 29, 2010

Wright brothers

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The Wright brothers, Orville (August 19, 1871 – January 30, 1948) and Wilbur (April 16, 1867 – May 30, 1912), were two Americans who are usually credited with inventing and building the world's first winning airplane and making the first controlled, powered and sustained heavier-than-air human flight, on December 17, 1903.

http://the-american-history.blogspot.com/In the two years afterward, the brothers developed their flying machine into the first sensible fixed-wing aircraft. Although not the first to build and fly trial aircraft, the Wright brothers were the first to invent aircraft controls that made fixed-wing powered flight possible.The brothers' primary breakthrough was their invention of three-axis control, which enabled the pilot to steer the aircraft effectively and to maintain its equilibrium.

This method became ordinary and remains standard on fixed-wing aircraft of all kinds. From the beginning of their aeronautical work, the Wright brothers focused on unlocking the secrets of control to overcome "the flying problem", rather than developing more powerful engines as some other experimenters did
.

http://the-american-history.blogspot.com/Their careful wind tunnel tests shaped better aeronautical data than any before, enabling them to design and build wings and propellers more effective than any before. Their U.S. patent 821,393 claims the creation of a system of aerodynamic control that manipulates a flying machine's surfaces.

They gain the mechanical skills necessary for their success by working for years in their shop with printing presses, bicycles, motors, and other machinery. Their work with bicycles in particular partial their belief that an unstable vehicle like a flying machine could be prohibited and balanced with practice.


Richard Nixon

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Richard Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States from 1969–1974 and was also the 36th Vice President of the United States (1953–1961). Nixon was the only President to resign the office and also the only person to be chosen twice to both the Presidency and the Vice Presidency.

Nixon was born in Yorba Linda, California, USA. After completing his scholar work at Whittier College, he graduated from Duke University School of Law in 1937 and returned to California to practice law in La Habra. Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, he joined the United States Navy, serving in the Pacific theater, and rose to the rank of Lieutenant leader during World War II.

He was selected in 1946 as a Republican to the House of Representatives representing California's 12th Congressional district, and in 1950 to the United States Senate. He was selected to be the running mate of Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Republican Party candidate, in the 1952 Presidential election, becoming one of the youngest Vice Presidents in history.


Monday, June 28, 2010

Marilyn Monroe - Actress

http://the-american-history.blogspot.com/Marilyn Monroe (June 1, 1926 – August 5, 1962), born Norma Jeane Mortenson, but baptized Norma Jeane Baker, was an American actress, singer and model. After spend much of her childhood in foster homes, Monroe began a career as a model, which led to a film contract in 1946. Her early film appearances were minor, but her performances in The tarmac Jungle and All About Eve were seriously acclaimed. In a few years, Monroe reached stardom and was cast as the foremost lady in such films as Gentlemen Prefer Blondes, How to Marry a Millionaire, The Seven Year Itch, and Some Like It Hot.

The typecasting of Monroe's "dumb blonde" persona limited her career forecast, so she broadened her range. She studied at the Actors Studio and shaped Marilyn Monroe Productions. Her dramatic presentation in Bus Stop was hailed by critics, and she won a Golden Globe Award for Some Like it Hot.

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The final years of Monroe's life were marked by illness, personal problems, and a standing for being unreliable and difficult to work with. The situation of her death, from an overdose of barbiturates, have been the subject of conjecture. Though officially secret as a "probable suicide," the possibility of an accidental overdose, as well as the possibility of homicide, have not been ruled out. In 1999, Monroe was ranked as the sixth most female star of all time by the American Film Institute.


Abraham Lincoln

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Abraham Lincoln served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his murder in April 1865. He successfully led his country through its most internal crisis, the American Civil War, preserving the Union and ending slavery. Before his election in 1860 as the first Republican president, Lincoln had been a country lawyer, an Illinois state legislator, a member of the United States House of Representatives, and twice an unsuccessful applicant for election to the U.S. Senate.

As an outspoken opponent of the growth of slavery in the United States, Lincoln won the Republican Party nomination in 1860 and was elected president later that year. His tenure in office was engaged primarily with the defeat of the secessionist Confederate States of America in the American Civil War. He introduced measures that resulted in the removal of slavery, issuing his Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 and promoting the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution.

Six days after the large-scale surrender of partner forces under General Robert E. Lee, Lincoln became the first American president to be assassinated. Lincoln had closely supervised the winning war effort, especially the selection of top generals, including Ulysses S. Grant. Historians have concluded that he handled the factions of the Republican Party well, bringing leaders of each faction into his cabinet and forcing them to assist.

Friday, June 25, 2010

The Statue of Liberty

http://the-american-history.blogspot.com/The Statue of Liberty , officially titled Liberty Enlightening the World, dedicated on October 28, 1886, is a monument commemorating the centenary of the signing of the United States Declaration of Independence, given to the United States by the people of France to represent the friendship between the two countries established during the American rebellion. It represents a woman wearing a stola, a radiant crown and sandals, trample a broken chain, transport a torch in her raised right hand.

Standing on Liberty Island in New York Harbor, it welcomes visitors, immigrants, and recurring Americans traveling by ship. Frederic Auguste Bartholdi sculpted the figure and obtained a U.S. patent for its structure. Maurice Koechlin chief engineer of Gustave Eiffel's engineering company and designer of the Eiffel Tower engineered the interior structure. The pedestal was intended by architect Richard Morris Hunt. Eugene Viollet-le-Duc was responsible for the option of copper in the statue's construction, and for the adoption of the repousse technique, where a malleable metal is hammer on the reverse side.

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The statue is made of a covering of pure copper, hung on a framework of steel with the exception of the flame of the torch, which is coated in gold leaf. It stands atop a rectangular stonework base with a foundation in the shape of an irregular eleven-pointed star. The statue is 151 ft (46 m) tall, but with the base and foundation, it is 305 ft (93 m) tall.The Statue of Liberty is one of the most familiar symbols in the world. For many years it was one of the first glimpses of the United States for millions of immigrants and guests after ocean voyages from around the world.

White House

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The White House is the official house and principal workplace of the President of the United States. Located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D.C., the house was planned by Irish-born James Hoban, and built between 1792 and 1800 of white-painted Aquia sandstone in the Neoclassical style. It has been the residence of each U.S. President since John Adams. When Thomas Jefferson moved into the house in 1801, he extended the building outward, creating two colonnades that were meant to conceal stables and storage.

In 1814, during the War of 1812, the mansion was set ablaze by the British Army in the Burning of Washington, destroy the interior and charring a lot of the exterior. Reconstruction began almost instantly, and President James Monroe moved into the partially reconstructed house in October 1817. Construction nonstop with the addition of the South Portico in 1824 and the North in 1829. Because of crowding within the executive house itself, President Theodore Roosevelt had nearly all work offices relocated to the newly constructed West Wing in 1901.

Eight years later, President William Howard Taft extended the West Wing and created the first Oval Office which was eventually moved as the section was expanded. The third-floor attic was changed to living quarters in 1927 by augmenting the existing hip roof with long shed dormers. A newly constructed East Wing was used as a reception area for social events; Jefferson's colonnades linked the new wings. East Wing alterations were finished in 1946, creating additional office space. By 1948, the house's load-bearing external walls and internal wood beams were found to be close to failure.

Thursday, June 24, 2010

Second World War

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World War II, or the Second World War, was a global military clash lasting from 1939 to 1945 which involved most of the world's nations, including all of the huge powers, organised into two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, with more than 100 million military personnel mobilised.

In a state of "total war," the major participants placed their complete economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities at the service of the war effort, erasing the difference between civilian and military resources. Marked by significant action against civilians, including the Holocaust and the only use of nuclear weapons in warfare, it was the deadliest clash in history. The war is generally accepted to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and following declarations of war on Germany by France and most of the countries of the British Empire and Commonwealth.

China and Japan were already at war by this date, whereas other countries that were not initially involved joined the war later in answer to events such as the German invasion of the Soviet Union and the Japanese attacks on the U.S. Pacific navy at Pearl Harbor and on British overseas colonies, which triggered declarations of war on Japan by the United States, the British Commonwealth, and the Netherlands. The war ended with the whole victory of the Allies over Germany and Japan in 1945.

First World War

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World War I was a military clash centered on Europe that began in the summer of 1914. The hostility ended in late 1918 in western Europe and by 1922 in eastern Europe. This clash involved most of the world's great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies and the Central Powers. More than 70 million military workers, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilized in one of the major wars in history. More than 15 million people were killed, creation it also one of the deadliest conflicts in history.

The war is also known as the First World War, the large War, the World War, and the War to End All Wars. The assassination on 28 June 1914 of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, is seen as the instant trigger of the war, though long-term causes, such as imperialistic foreign policies of the great powers of Europe such as the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, the Russian Empire, the British Empire, France, and Italy played a major role.

Ferdinand's killing at the hands of a Yugoslav nationalist resulted in Habsburg ultimatum against the Kingdom of Serbia. Several alliances that had been formed over the past decades were invoked, so within weeks the major powers were at war; as all had colonies, the clash soon spread around the world. The clash opened with the German invasion of Belgium, Luxembourg and France; the Austro-Hungarian invasion of Serbia and a Russian attack against Prussia.

Tuesday, June 22, 2010

Colonial period

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After a period of exploration by people from various European countries, Spanish, Dutch, English, French, Swedish, and Portuguese settlements were conventional. Although Leif Ericson was the first European to land in North America, Christopher Columbus is credited as the first European to set foot on what would one day become US country when he came to Puerto Rico on November 19, 1493, during his second voyage.

Spanish explorers came to what is now the United States start with Christopher Columbus' second expedition, which reached Puerto Rico on November 19, 1493. The first confirmed landing in the continental US was by a Spaniard, Juan Ponce de Leon, who landed in 1513 on a luxuriant shore he christened La Florida.

Within three decades of Ponce de Leon's landing, the Spanish became the first Europeans to achieve the Appalachian Mountains, the Mississippi River, the Grand Canyon and the Great Plains. In 1540, Hernando de Soto undertook an extensive investigation of the present US and, in the same year, Francisco Vazquez de Coronado led 2,000 Spaniards and Native Mexican Americans across the modern Arizona–Mexico border and travel as far as central Kansas.

History of America

http://ameicanhistory.blogspot.com/The first residents of what is now the United States emigrate from Asia over 15,000 years ago by crossing Beringia into what is now present-day Alaska. Archaeological evidence of these peoples, the associates of the Native Americans, dates back to 14,000 years ago.

Christopher Columbus was the first European to land in the country of what is now the United States when he arrived in Puerto Rico in 1492. The subsequent entrance of settlers from Europe began the colonial history of the United States. The Thirteen English colonies that would become the original US states were found along the east coast start in 1607. Spain, France and Russia also founded small settlements in what would become US territory.

The population of the Thirteen Colonies grew quickly, reaching 50,000 by 1650, 250,000 by 1700, and 2.5 million by 1775. High birth rates and low death rates were increased by steady flows of immigrants from Europe and slaves from the West Indies. Occasional small-scale wars involved the French and Indians to the north, and the Spanish and Indians to the south.


For more details visit : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_history